In the public education setting, dyslexia is described as a specific learning disability in reading.According to the Yale Center for Dyslexia and Creativity, the prevalence rate for dyslexia is estimated to range from 5% to 17% of school-age children.According to the National Center for Learning Disabilities, common features of dyslexia include the following:
- Difficulties in the ability to notice, think about, and work with individual sounds in words (phonemic awareness)
- Difficulties in detecting and discriminating differences in phonemes or speech sounds (phonological processing)
- Difficulty with word decoding (fluency, rate of reading, rhyming, spelling, vocabulary, comprehension, and written expression)
Common misconceptions about dyslexia include the following:
Myth: Letter reversals are a sign of dyslexia.Fact: Letter reversals are reasonably common in children up to second or third grade.Myth: Dyslexia is caused by a visual processing disorder.
Fact: In the vast majority of cases, dyslexia/specific learning disability in reading is not caused by a visual processing disorder, but is a language based disorder.